Operating System

Bayu Sutrisno

Student of Informatic Engineering at STMIK Sinar Nusantara.
Keep moving forward and thinking out of the box, but I don't even know where the box is. Hehe

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Operating System

Introduction of Operating System

Operating System (or usually known as OS) is a written program to control and coordinate operating activities of computer system. OS work like a manager in a company. It controlling, coordinating, and being responsible toward all of company operating activities efficiently and effectively. Other terms of OS are monitor, executive, supervisor, controller, or master control program.

OS first time developed formally for Computer IBM 701 in 1954 and in 1955 by General Motor Research Laboratories. On that time, the main purpose of OS is to overcome idle time from CPU and used for operating some computer job by accumulating (batch). The first OS still did not work properly if compared with recently OS. On April 1964, IBM was introducing OS that called OS/360 to be used in every System 360 computer series. A computer can use one or more OS. An OS maybe only able to be applied in one or some computer brands. Apple DOS is for example, it is the only OS that only able to used in Apple computer, meanwhile, CP/M, MS – DOS, Windows, UNIX are the example of OS that able to used or applied in some different computer brands. Apple DOS, CP/M, Windows, and MS – DOS are OS for microcomputer and UNIX is an OS that suitable for microcomputer or minicomputer.

Component of Operating System

Operating system is generally based on two parts, i.e. control program and user interface. Part of control program divided into two different parts that are saved in ROM and diskette or in Hard disk. Control program which saved in ROM named as resident program or resident routine. Part of another program which saved in disk usually called as transient program or transient routine. Control program which saved in disk called Disk Operating System (DOS) because of the location that located in disk and control program which is located in tape usually called as Tape Operating System (TOS)

For example, IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System that used in the IBM PC computer, control program that located in ROM called BIOS (Basic Input Output System) and bootstrap program. OS that saved in diskette is consisting of two files that named with IBMBIO.COM and IBMDOS.COM, and explained below:

  • Bootstrap program for taking part of other OS that available in disk
  • BIOS and IBMBIO.COM work for managing and coordinating basic Device, for example: keyboard, printer, or communication tools or other Device.
  • COM work for managing and coordinating PC

For Windows Operating System on IBM PC, Microsoft as the manufacturer of Windows, still use control program that provided by the hardware manufactory. Then, Windows adding second part of operating system that called with User Interface. User interface of Windows also known as GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) which is using icon, menu, buttons, tables, and mouse operation and keyboard as the connector (interface) between user and the computer system.

Function of Operating System

Operating System (OS) generally has function like management in a company, which working to manage resources of the company. The resources of computer system should be managed by operating system in order to be more efficient and effective. The resources are main memory, processor, or external memory (hard disk), or other Device. As a manager, a operating system have to do management activities, i.e.: memory management, processor management, information management, and device management

Activities or function of management that should be done to manage resources of computer systems are activities or allocating function of resources (more connecting with main memory usage), scheduling function in resource usage (more connecting with time scheduling of CPU and hard disk usage), and monitoring and controlling function toward computer system activities (more connecting with basic device)

  1. Resources Allocating Function

Operating system can handle some programs at once. Operating system allocating hardware resources to the programs which is waiting to be executed. Operating system will allocate programs and data which get priority to be processed in main memory (RAM) also allocate device usage for example printer, and other telecommunication device.

For big program and not efficient to be allocated all in RAM, operating system will make virtual storage. By using virtual storage, operating system will divide programs into some parts and only take partially which usually used actively in RAM and the rest will be left in external memory. If part of program in external memory needed, it will switch with the program in RAM. So, by this method, CPU can process many program at once.

  1. Resources Scheduling Function

Operating system works to manage job scheduling that should be done and needed device to support the system. It is possible for OS to schedule all device in order to overcome idle time and able to work properly, efficiently, and effectively. For example, while CPU is processing a program, OS will be scheduling to printer usage and recording some data to the hard disk at the same time. Not every job will be done by FIFO system (First In First Out), but it is more emphasizing resources optimization.

  1. Resources Controlling Function

Operating system will control toward operating computer and the user system. By controlling, the performance would not be mess. Operating system also will be controlling security of the computer system

now OS can handle some performance (multitask) for a computer or more at once in network, by the functions that have been done done by the operating system.


Reference :

The Book


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