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Arduino declares the software and hardware used to control a number of electronic devices such as temperature sensors, LCD viewers and motors. Arduino integrated Development Equipment (Arduino IDE) is software used to develop programs and allows programs to be uploaded to Arduino boards. The program is a collection of instructions intended to control the computer. Arduino board is a board intended to control the computer. Arduino board is an electronic board containing microcontroller based on ATMega, while microcontroller is a chip (integrated circuit) containing processor alias the processor and also memory which is useful for storing data. Figure 1.1. Show example microcontroller.
Arduino board itself there are various sizes. For example, Arduino Uno is the size of a credit card, while the lilyPad is a circle about 5.5 cm in diameter. Figure 1.2 shows an example of Arduino Uno and liliPad. Based on the information on the page on the S4A.cat web page, Arduino Uno is a type of Arduino that has been tested can work with Scratch for Arduino.
Arduino board contains four LEDs, each coded L, TX, RX, and ON. Figure 1.3 shows the four buttons. The role of each LED is as follows:
L: This LED is connected to pin number 13;
TX: This LED indicates there is data transmission from Arduino;
RX: This LED indicates there is data reception;
ON: This LED lights up if Arduino gets power supply.
Arduino Uno contains 13 digital points and 6 analog pins. Digital pins mean pins that have digital values, which means there are only two possibilities, namely 1 or 0. An analog pin is a pin whose value varies greatly, which is an integer between 0 and 1023. Often we use digital pins, but sometimes – sometimes we need an analog pin. The use of analog and digital pins will be introduced later.
Scratch is software intended to introduce programming for children aged six and over. This “open source” device was created at The Masschusetts Institute of Technology (MiT), USA. Unlike most approaches in programming, Scratch relies on the drawing blocks for programming. This approach allows children to create programs very easily. Figure 1.4 shows an example of code blocks used in a project to create a program. The left side states blocks that each declare an instruction, while the right represents the set of instructions that are arranged according to the blocks.
Scratch for Arduino
Scratch for Arduino (S4A) is software derived from Scratch in order to be used to interact with Arduino boards. S4A was developed by Citilab in 2010. The purpose of making this software is to enable children to learn programming and at the same time electronics as early as possible.
Because programming can be poured in the form of image blocks, of course, becomes easy to manifest. Additionally, the possibility of incorrectly writing code (otherwise known as a syntax error is not consistent with the rules applied in the language) as is common in text-based programming languages can be avoided.
Electronic learning that relies on programming will be simpler by using Scratch for Arduino. If using an Arduino IDE development tool only, children will have trouble especially in understanding the writing of commands. But thanks to Scratch for Arduino, the electronic circuit can be controlled or programmed only through the drawing blocks that are so easily composed by children.
Like Scratch, Scratch for Arduino is free. The software can be downloaded at s4a.cat
Please note that Scratch for Arduino is actually intended for learning purposes only. If you are already familiar with this software and already understand the principles of programming and electronics, you need to deepen the Arduino IDE for more serious interests.