A basic introduction to Programming for beginners

The program is a statement compiled into one unified procedure which consists of a sequence of steps that are arranged logically and systematically in order to resolve the problem. According to p. Insap Santosa, the program is a set of instructions or commands that are compiled in such a way so as to have a proper sequence of logical reasoning to solve a issue. Instructions (statement) that question is the syntax (the way of writing) in accordance with the programming language that is used which has the components: input, Output, process, Branching and Looping.

Programming languages

• is a tool to make the program

• example: C, C , C #, Pascal, Basic, Perl, PHP, ASP, JHP, Java, etc.

• The difference: how to give instructions

• the equation: aiming at the same output


There are three important factors in the programming language Syntax is:

1. the rules of writing of those languages (grammar of the language).

2. Semantics is meaning or intent contained in the statement.

3. The truth is logic-related validity order statement.


In making a program, we have to use programming techniques, as for the programming techniques include:

• procedural programming

– based on sequences, sequential

– Program is a set of procedures to manipulate the data. A procedure is a set of instructions that are executed sequentially.

– Having to remember where that procedure had already been called upon and what has been changed.

• Functional programming

– based on the theory of mathematical functions

– is the basis of the main Functions of the program.

• Structured programming

– sequentially and terstrukrtur.

– Programs can be shared-for a procedure and a function.

– Example: PASCAL and C

• Modular Programming

– Programming forms a lot of modules.

– Module is a set of procedures and functions that are stand alone

– a program is a set of modules.

– Examples: MODULA-2 or there

• object-oriented programming

– Programming based on the principles of objects, where the objects have the data/variable/property and method/event/procedures that can be manipulated

– examples: C , Object Pascal, and Java.

• Function-oriented programming

– Programming focuses on a specific function only. Really depends on the purpose of the creation of this programming language.

– Example: SQL (Structured Query Language), HTML, XML and others.

• Declarative Programming

– Programming describes a problem with the statement than to solve problems with the implementation of the algorithm.

– Example: PROLOGUE


The criteria of Some programming language a programming language selection criteria:

• Clarity, simplicity and unity the ease, simplicity and unity is a combination that helps programmers develop an algorithm.

• Orthogonality is an attribute that can be combined with various features of programming languages so that each combination has meaning and can be used.

• Fairness for applications programming languages must have data structures, operations, control structures and syntax that is appropriate to solve a problem.

• Support the abstraction is the Abstraction of a substantial thing for programmers to create a solution of the problems faced.

• Ease to verify program with data verification, then the program will be easily constructed and developed.



Programming aspects

In data processing and the manufacture of a program takes some basic aspects :

A. Brainware

Managing personnel who run and oversee the operation of the system unit computer data processing in the process to produce an information timely, appropriate and accurate. Example: System analysts, programmers, operators, Technical Support, etc.

B. Hardware

A series of elements that comprise some of the computer hardware that is used to help human work process (Brainware). Examples: CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, hard drive, Disk drives, etc.

C. Software

A series of elements comprising some software computer program used to assist human work process (Brainware). Example: System Software, Application Software, Software Packages, etc.

Programming Language Based On Its Development

  • Machine Language

programming language that can only be understood by machines (computers) which contained the CPU only knows two opposite form, namely:

-If tejadi contact (no current) worth 1

-when the contact is disconnected (no current) 0

  • Low Level Language

Because of his difficult machine language, then made a memorable symbol called “Mnemonics”. A programming language that translates Mnemonics called Assembler. Example: Add, Substract, Mov

  • Middle Level Language

Programming languages use grammatical rules in writing a statement, easy to understand and has specific instructions that can be directly accessed by the computer. An example is the C language

  • High Level Language

The programming language in the writing of his statement is easy to understand directly. The programming language is divided into two, namely:

1. Procedure Oriented Language

a. Scientist used to solve Mathematical problems/calculation Example: Algol, Fortran, Pascal, Basic

b. Bussines is used to solve problems in the field of business. For example: Cobol, PL/1.

2. Problem Oriented Language e.g. RPG (Report Program Generator).

  • Object Oriented Language

Language-oriented programming on the object. This programming language contains functions to solve a problem and the program does not have to detail all of his statement, but simply enter the desired criteria just for example: Visual dBase, Visual FoxPro, Delphi, Visual C, etc.

Basic Programming Framework


  • Origination

This stage is associated with the process of data collection, which is usually a process of recording (recording) data to the document base.

  • Input

This stage is the process of earnings data (data entry) to the computer through the process of the gear input (input device)

  • Process

This stage of the merupkana process data processing from data already entered in the form process count, compare, menglasifikasikan, sort, controlling and searching the Output

  • output

This stage is the process of generating the output of processing data to equipment output (output device) in the form of information.

  • Distribution

This s

tage is the process of dissemination of inromasi to the parties who are entitled to and need information

  • Storage

This stage is recording the results of the processing data to secondary storage, which can be used as input to the next process.

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