The program is a statement compiled into one unified procedure which consists of a sequence of steps that are arranged logically and systematically in order to resolve the problem. According to p. Insap Santosa, the program is a set of instructions or commands that are compiled in such a way so as to have a proper sequence of logical reasoning to solve a issue. Instructions (statement) that question is the syntax (the way of writing) in accordance with the programming language that is used which has the components: input, Output, process, Branching and Looping.
• is a tool to make the program
• example: C, C , C #, Pascal, Basic, Perl, PHP, ASP, JHP, Java, etc.
• The difference: how to give instructions
• the equation: aiming at the same output
There are three important factors in the programming language Syntax is:
1. the rules of writing of those languages (grammar of the language).
2. Semantics is meaning or intent contained in the statement.
3. The truth is logic-related validity order statement.
In making a program, we have to use programming techniques, as for the programming techniques include:
• procedural programming
– based on sequences, sequential
– Program is a set of procedures to manipulate the data. A procedure is a set of instructions that are executed sequentially.
– Having to remember where that procedure had already been called upon and what has been changed.
• Functional programming
– based on the theory of mathematical functions
– is the basis of the main Functions of the program.
• Structured programming
– sequentially and terstrukrtur.
– Programs can be shared-for a procedure and a function.
– Example: PASCAL and C
• Modular Programming
– Programming forms a lot of modules.
– Module is a set of procedures and functions that are stand alone
– a program is a set of modules.
– Examples: MODULA-2 or there
• object-oriented programming
– Programming based on the principles of objects, where the objects have the data/variable/property and method/event/procedures that can be manipulated
– examples: C , Object Pascal, and Java.
• Function-oriented programming
– Programming focuses on a specific function only. Really depends on the purpose of the creation of this programming language.
– Example: SQL (Structured Query Language), HTML, XML and others.
• Declarative Programming
– Programming describes a problem with the statement than to solve problems with the implementation of the algorithm.
– Example: PROLOGUE
The criteria of Some programming language a programming language selection criteria:
• Clarity, simplicity and unity the ease, simplicity and unity is a combination that helps programmers develop an algorithm.
• Orthogonality is an attribute that can be combined with various features of programming languages so that each combination has meaning and can be used.
• Fairness for applications programming languages must have data structures, operations, control structures and syntax that is appropriate to solve a problem.
• Support the abstraction is the Abstraction of a substantial thing for programmers to create a solution of the problems faced.
• Ease to verify program with data verification, then the program will be easily constructed and developed.
In data processing and the manufacture of a program takes some basic aspects :
Managing personnel who run and oversee the operation of the system unit computer data processing in the process to produce an information timely, appropriate and accurate. Example: System analysts, programmers, operators, Technical Support, etc.
A series of elements that comprise some of the computer hardware that is used to help human work process (Brainware). Examples: CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, hard drive, Disk drives, etc.
A series of elements comprising some software computer program used to assist human work process (Brainware). Example: System Software, Application Software, Software Packages, etc.
Programming Language Based On Its Development
- Machine Language
programming language that can only be understood by machines (computers) which contained the CPU only knows two opposite form, namely:
-If tejadi contact (no current) worth 1
-when the contact is disconnected (no current) 0
- Low Level Language
Because of his difficult machine language, then made a memorable symbol called “Mnemonics”. A programming language that translates Mnemonics called Assembler. Example: Add, Substract, Mov
- Middle Level Language
Programming languages use grammatical rules in writing a statement, easy to understand and has specific instructions that can be directly accessed by the computer. An example is the C language
- High Level Language
The programming language in the writing of his statement is easy to understand directly. The programming language is divided into two, namely:
1. Procedure Oriented Language
a. Scientist used to solve Mathematical problems/calculation Example: Algol, Fortran, Pascal, Basic
b. Bussines is used to solve problems in the field of business. For example: Cobol, PL/1.
2. Problem Oriented Language e.g. RPG (Report Program Generator).
- Object Oriented Language
Language-oriented programming on the object. This programming language contains functions to solve a problem and the program does not have to detail all of his statement, but simply enter the desired criteria just for example: Visual dBase, Visual FoxPro, Delphi, Visual C, etc.
Basic Programming Framework
This stage is associated with the process of data collection, which is usually a process of recording (recording) data to the document base.
This stage is the process of earnings data (data entry) to the computer through the process of the gear input (input device)
This stage of the merupkana process data processing from data already entered in the form process count, compare, menglasifikasikan, sort, controlling and searching the Output
This stage is the process of generating the output of processing data to equipment output (output device) in the form of information.
tage is the process of dissemination of inromasi to the parties who are entitled to and need information
This stage is recording the results of the processing data to secondary storage, which can be used as input to the next process.